C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第2版)英文版 PDF格式高清电子书免费下载

C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第2版)英文版

作者 【德】Nicolai M. Josuttis
出版社 人民邮电出版社
出版日期 2013-01-01
页数 1099
格式 Paper book / ebook (PDF)
ISBN 9787115296870
价格 128
  • 内容简介
  • 图书目录
  • 免费下载

出版信息

ISBN:9787115296870
语言:简体中文
包装/印刷类型:1
开本:16开
出版时间:2013-01-01
页数:1099

内容简介

本书包含了C++语言中的大量常见类和接口,描述了新整合到C++11标准中的所有标准类类和模板库,对每一个库的概念、用途、陷阱和缺陷等进行了详细讲解,并辅之以大量代码案例进行说明。对具有一定C++编程经验的开发人员来说,本书是他们的案头必备。

  《C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第 2版)英文版》第 1版自1999年出版便成为全球畅销书,经久不衰。它提供了一组通用类和接口,极大地拓展了C++核心语言。本书在第 1版的基础上,为每个库组件都提供详细全面的文档,介绍各组件的用途和设计,清晰地解释复杂的内容;阐述了高效使用所需要的实践编程细节、陷阱和缺陷、大部分重要类和函数的精 确签名(signature)以及定义,而且包含丰富代码示例。本书将重点放在标准模版库(STL)上,检查其中的容器(container)、迭代器(iterator)、函数对象(function object)和STL算法。

  《C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第 2版)英文版》涵盖了所有的新的C++11库组件,包括:并发性、分数计算、时钟和计时器、元组、新STL容器、新STL算法、新智能指针、新local方面、随机数字和分布、类型特性和通用工具、正则表达式。除此之外,本书还解释了新的C++编程样式以及对标准库的影响,包括lambda、基于范围的for循环、移动语义和可变参数模版。

  《C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第 2版)英文版》的读者需要对类、继承、模版、异常处理和名称空间的概念有所了解(本书介绍标准组件,而非语言本身),但也不必掌握所有的语言细节。书中见解深刻的基础概念介绍和标准库鸟瞰,可助读者快速提升。《C++标准库——自学教程与参考手册(第 2版)英文版》可兼作自修教程和标准库参考手册,不仅可用作C++高 级教材,也是软件从业人员不可或缺的案头参考书。

图书目录

目 录

1 About This Book 1

1.1 WhyThisBook 1

1.2 Before Reading This Book 2

1.3 Style and Structure of the Book 2

1.4 HowtoReadThisBook 4

1.5 Stateof theArt 5

1.6 Example Code and Additional Information 5

1.7 Feedback 5

2 Introduction to C++ and the Standard Library 7

2.1 History of theC++Standards 7

2.1.1 Common Questions about the C++11 Standard 8

2.1.2 Compatibility between C++98 and C++11 9

2.2 Complexity and Big-O Notation 10

3 New Language Features 13

3.1 New C++11 Language Features 13

3.1.1 Important Minor Syntax Cleanups 13

3.1.2 Automatic Type Deduction with auto 14

3.1.3 Uniform Initialization and Initializer Lists 15

3.1.4 Range-Based for Loops 17

3.1.5 Move Semantics and Rvalue References 19

3.1.6 NewStringLiterals 23

3.1.7 Keyword noexcept 24

3.1.8 Keyword constexpr 26

3.1.9 NewTemplateFeatures 26

3.1.10 Lambdas 28

3.1.11 Keyword decltype 32

3.1.12 New Function Declaration Syntax 32

3.1.13 Scoped Enumerations 32

3.1.14 New Fundamental Data Types 33

3.2 Old “New” Language Features 33

3.2.1 Explicit Initialization for Fundamental Types 37

3.2.2 Definition of main() 37

4 General Concepts 39

4.1 Namespace std 39

4.2 HeaderFiles 40

4.3 Error and Exception Handling 41

4.3.1 Standard Exception Classes 41

4.3.2 Members of Exception Classes 44

4.3.3 Passing Exceptions with Class exception_ptr 52

4.3.4 Throwing Standard Exceptions 53

4.3.5 Deriving from Standard Exception Classes 54

4.4 CallableObjects 54

4.5 Concurrency and Multithreading 55

4.6 Allocators 57

5 Utilities 59

5.1 Pairs and Tuples 60

5.1.1 Pairs 60

5.1.2 Tuples 68

5.1.3 I/O for Tuples 74

5.1.4 Conversions between tuples and pairs 75

5.2 Smart Pointers 76

5.2.1 Class shared_ptr 76

5.2.2 Class weak_ptr 84

5.2.3 Misusing Shared Pointers 89

5.2.4 Shared and Weak Pointers in Detail 92

5.2.5 Class unique_ptr 98

5.2.6 Class unique_ptr inDetail 110

5.2.7 Class auto_ptr 113

5.2.8 Final Words on Smart Pointers 114

5.3 NumericLimits 115

5.4 Type Traits and Type Utilities 122

5.4.1 PurposeofTypeTraits 122

5.4.2 TypeTraits inDetail 125

5.4.3 ReferenceWrappers 132

5.4.4 Function Type Wrappers 133

5.5 Auxiliary Functions 134

5.5.1 Processing the Minimum and Maximum 134

5.5.2 Swapping Two Values 136

5.5.3 Supplementary Comparison Operators 138

5.6 Compile-Time Fractional Arithmetic with Class ratio<> 140

5.7 Clocks andTimers 143

5.7.1 Overviewof theChronoLibrary 143

5.7.2 Durations 144

5.7.3 Clocks and Timepoints 149

5.7.4 Date and Time Functions by C and POSIX 157

5.7.5 Blocking with Timers 160

5.8 Header Files <cstddef>, <cstdlib>, and <cstring> 161

5.8.1 Definitions in <cstddef> 161

5.8.2 Definitions in <cstdlib> 162

5.8.3 Definitions in <cstring> 163

6 The Standard Template Library 165

6.1 STL Components 165

6.2 Containers 167

6.2.1 Sequence Containers 169

6.2.2 Associative Containers 177

6.2.3 Unordered Containers 180

6.2.4 AssociativeArrays 185

6.2.5 Other Containers 187

6.2.6 Container Adapters 188

6.3 Iterators 188

6.3.1 Further Examples of Using Associative and Unordered Containers 193

6.3.2 IteratorCategories 198

6.4 Algorithms 199

6.4.1 Ranges 203

6.4.2 Handling Multiple Ranges 207

6.5 IteratorAdapters 210

6.5.1 Insert Iterators 210

6.5.2 StreamIterators 212

6.5.3 Reverse Iterators 214

6.5.4 Move Iterators 216

6.6 User-Defined Generic Functions 216

6.7 Manipulating Algorithms 217

6.7.1 “Removing” Elements 218

6.7.2 Manipulating Associative and Unordered Containers 221

6.7.3 Algorithms versus Member Functions 223

6.8 Functions as Algorithm Arguments 224

6.8.1 Using Functions as Algorithm Arguments 224

6.8.2 Predicates 226

6.9 UsingLambdas 229

6.10 Function Objects 233

6.10.1 Definition of Function Objects 233

6.10.2 Predefined Function Objects 239

6.10.3 Binders 241

6.10.4 Function Objects and Binders versus Lambdas 243

6.11 Container Elements 244

6.11.1 Requirements for Container Elements 244

6.11.2 Value Semantics or Reference Semantics 245

6.12 Errors and Exceptions inside the STL 245

6.12.1 Error Handling 246

6.12.2 Exception Handling 248

6.13 Extending the STL 250

6.13.1 Integrating Additional Types 250

6.13.2 Deriving from STL Types 251

7 STL Containers 253

7.1 Common Container Abilities and Operations 254

7.1.1 Container Abilities 254

7.1.2 Container Operations 254

7.1.3 Container Types 260

7.2 Arrays 261

7.2.1 Abilities of Arrays 261

7.2.2 Array Operations 263

7.2.3 Using arrays as C-Style Arrays 267

7.2.4 Exception Handling 268

7.2.5 Tuple Interface 268

7.2.6 ExamplesofUsingArrays 268

7.3 Vectors 270

7.3.1 Abilities of Vectors 270

7.3.2 Vector Operations 273

7.3.3 Using Vectors as C-Style Arrays 278

7.3.4 Exception Handling 278

7.3.5 ExamplesofUsingVectors 279

7.3.6 Class vector<bool> 281

7.4 Deques 283

7.4.1 Abilities of Deques 284

7.4.2 Deque Operations 285

7.4.3 Exception Handling 288

7.4.4 ExamplesofUsingDeques 288

7.5 Lists 290

7.5.1 Abilities of Lists 290

7.5.2 List Operations 291

7.5.3 Exception Handling 296

7.5.4 ExamplesofUsingLists 298

7.6 ForwardLists 300

7.6.1 Abilities of Forward Lists 300

7.6.2 Forward List Operations 302

7.6.3 Exception Handling 311

7.6.4 ExamplesofUsingForwardLists 312

7.7 Sets and Multisets 314

7.7.1 Abilities of Sets and Multisets 315

7.7.2 Set and Multiset Operations 316

7.7.3 Exception Handling 325

7.7.4 Examples of Using Sets and Multisets 325

7.7.5 Example of Specifying the Sorting Criterion at Runtime 328

7.8 Maps and Multimaps 331

7.8.1 Abilities of Maps and Multimaps 332

7.8.2 Map and Multimap Operations 333

7.8.3 UsingMaps asAssociativeArrays 343

7.8.4 Exception Handling 345

7.8.5 Examples of Using Maps and Multimaps 345

7.8.6 Example with Maps, Strings, and Sorting Criterion at Runtime 351

7.9 Unordered Containers 355

7.9.1 Abilities of Unordered Containers 357

7.9.2 Creating and Controlling Unordered Containers 359

7.9.3 Other Operations for Unordered Containers 367

7.9.4 TheBucket Interface 374

7.9.5 UsingUnorderedMaps asAssociativeArrays 374

7.9.6 Exception Handling 375

7.9.7 Examples of Using Unordered Containers 375

7.10 Other STL Containers 385

7.10.1 Strings as STL Containers 385

7.10.2 Ordinary C-Style Arrays as STL Containers 386

7.11 Implementing Reference Semantics 388

7.12 When to Use Which Container 392

8 STL Container Members in Detail 397

8.1 Type Definitions 397

8.2 Create, Copy, and Destroy Operations 400

8.3 Nonmodifying Operations 403

8.3.1 Size Operations 403

8.3.2 Comparison Operations 404

8.3.3 Nonmodifying Operations for Associative and Unordered Containers 404

8.4 Assignments 406

8.5 Direct Element Access 408

8.6 Operations to Generate Iterators 410

8.7 Inserting and Removing Elements 411

8.7.1 Inserting Single Elements 411

8.7.2 Inserting Multiple Elements 416

8.7.3 Removing Elements 417

8.7.4 Resizing 420

8.8 Special Member Functions for Lists and Forward Lists 420

8.8.1 Special Member Functions for Lists (and Forward Lists) 420

8.8.2 Special Member Functions for Forward Lists Only 423

8.9 Container Policy Interfaces 427

8.9.1 Nonmodifying Policy Functions 427

8.9.2 Modifying Policy Functions 428

8.9.3 Bucket Interface for Unordered Containers 429

8.10 Allocator Support 430

8.10.1 Fundamental Allocator Members 430

8.10.2 Constructors with Optional Allocator Parameters 430

9 STL Iterators 433

9.1 HeaderFiles for Iterators 433

9.2 IteratorCategories 433

9.2.1 Output Iterators 433

9.2.2 Input Iterators 435

9.2.3 ForwardIterators 436

9.2.4 Bidirectional Iterators 437

9.2.5 Random-Access Iterators 438

9.2.6 The Increment and Decrement Problem of Vector Iterators 440

9.3 Auxiliary Iterator Functions 441

9.3.1 advance() 441

9.3.2 next() and prev() 443

9.3.3 distance() 445

9.3.4 iter_swap() 446

9.4 IteratorAdapters 448

9.4.1 Reverse Iterators 448

9.4.2 Insert Iterators 454

9.4.3 StreamIterators 460

9.4.4 Move Iterators 466

9.5 IteratorTraits 466

9.5.1 Writing Generic Functions for Iterators 468

9.6 Writing User-Defined Iterators 471

10 STL Function Objects and Using Lambdas 475

10.1 The Concept of Function Objects 475

10.1.1 Function Objects as Sorting Criteria 476

10.1.2 Function Objects with Internal State 478

10.1.3 The Return Value of for_each() 482

10.1.4 Predicates versus Function Objects 483

10.2 Predefined Function Objects and Binders 486

10.2.1 Predefined Function Objects 486

10.2.2 Function Adapters and Binders 487

10.2.3 User-Defined Function Objects for Function Adapters 495

10.2.4 Deprecated Function Adapters 497

10.3 UsingLambdas 499

10.3.1 Lambdas versus Binders 499

10.3.2 Lambdas versus Stateful Function Objects 500

10.3.3 Lambdas Calling Global and Member Functions 502

10.3.4 Lambdas as Hash Function, Sorting, or Equivalence Criterion 504

11 STL Algorithms 505

11.1 Algorithm Header Files 505

11.2 Algorithm Overview 505

11.2.1 A Brief Introduction 506

11.2.2 Classification of Algorithms 506

11.3 Auxiliary Functions 517

11.4 The for_each() Algorithm 519

11.5 Nonmodifying Algorithms 524

11.5.1 Counting Elements 524

11.5.2 Minimum and Maximum 525

11.5.3 Searching Elements 528

11.5.4 ComparingRanges 542

11.5.5 Predicates forRanges 550

11.6 Modifying Algorithms 557

11.6.1 Copying Elements 557

11.6.2 Moving Elements 561

11.6.3 Transforming and Combining Elements 563

11.6.4 Swapping Elements 566

11.6.5 Assigning New Values 568

11.6.6 ReplacingElements 571

11.7 Removing Algorithms 575

11.7.1 Removing Certain Values 575

11.7.2 Removing Duplicates 578

11.8 Mutating Algorithms 583

11.8.1 ReversingtheOrderofElements 583

11.8.2 Rotating Elements 584

11.8.3 Permuting Elements 587

11.8.4 ShufflingElements 589

11.8.5 Moving Elements to the Front 592

11.8.6 Partition into Two Subranges 594

11.9 Sorting Algorithms 596

11.9.1 Sorting All Elements 596

11.9.2 Partial Sorting 599

11.9.3 Sorting According to the nthElement 602

11.9.4 Heap Algorithms 604

11.10 Sorted-Range Algorithms 608

11.10.1 Searching Elements 608

11.10.2 Merging Elements 614

11.11 Numeric Algorithms 623

11.11.1 Processing Results 623

11.11.2 Converting Relative and Absolute Values 627

12 Special Containers 631

12.1 Stacks 632

12.1.1 TheCore Interface 633

12.1.2 ExampleofUsingStacks 633

12.1.3 AUser-DefinedStackClass 635

12.1.4 Class stack<> inDetail 637

12.2 Queues 638

12.2.1 TheCore Interface 639

12.2.2 ExampleofUsingQueues 640

12.2.3 AUser-DefinedQueueClass 641

12.2.4 Class queue<> inDetail 641

12.3 PriorityQueues 641

12.3.1 TheCore Interface 643

12.3.2 ExampleofUsingPriorityQueues 643

12.3.3 Class priority_queue<> inDetail 644

12.4 Container Adapters in Detail 645

12.4.1 Type Definitions 645

12.4.2 Constructors 646

12.4.3 Supplementary Constructors for Priority Queues 646

12.4.4 Operations 647

12.5 Bitsets 650

12.5.1 ExamplesofUsingBitsets 651

12.5.2 Class bitset inDetail 653

13 Strings 655

13.1 Purposeof theStringClasses 656

13.1.1 A First Example: Extracting a Temporary Filename 656

13.1.2 A Second Example: Extracting Words and Printing Them Backward 660

13.2 Description of the String Classes 663

13.2.1 StringTypes 663

13.2.2 Operation Overview 666

13.2.3 Constructors andDestructor 667

13.2.4 Strings and C-Strings 668

13.2.5 Size andCapacity 669

13.2.6 Element Access 671

13.2.7 Comparisons 672

13.2.8 Modifiers 673

13.2.9 Substrings and String Concatenation 676

13.2.10 Input/Output Operators 677

13.2.11 Searching and Finding 678

13.2.12 The Value npos 680

13.2.13 Numeric Conversions 681

13.2.14 Iterator Support for Strings 684

13.2.15 Internationalization 689

13.2.16 Performance 692

13.2.17 Strings and Vectors 692

13.3 StringClass inDetail 693

13.3.1 Type Definitions and Static Values 693

13.3.2 Create, Copy, and Destroy Operations 694

13.3.3 Operations for Size and Capacity 696

13.3.4 Comparisons 697

13.3.5 Character Access 699

13.3.6 Generating C-Strings and Character Arrays 700

13.3.7 Modifying Operations 700

13.3.8 Searching and Finding 708

13.3.9 Substrings and String Concatenation 711

13.3.10 Input/Output Functions 712

13.3.11 Numeric Conversions 713

13.3.12 Generating Iterators 714

13.3.13 Allocator Support 715

14 Regular Expressions 717

14.1 TheRegexMatch andSearchInterface 717

14.2 Dealing with Subexpressions 720

14.3 Regex Iterators 726

14.4 RegexToken Iterators 727

14.5 Replacing Regular Expressions 730

14.6 RegexFlags 732

14.7 Regex Exceptions 735

14.8 TheRegexECMAScriptGrammar 738

14.9 OtherGrammars 739

14.10 Basic Regex Signatures in Detail 740

15 Input/Output Using Stream Classes 743

15.1 Common Background of I/O Streams 744

15.1.1 StreamObjects 744

15.1.2 StreamClasses 744

15.1.3 Global Stream Objects 745

15.1.4 StreamOperators 745

15.1.5 Manipulators 746

15.1.6 ASimpleExample 746

15.2 Fundamental Stream Classes and Objects 748

15.2.1 Classes andClassHierarchy 748

15.2.2 Global Stream Objects 751

15.2.3 HeaderFiles 752

15.3 Standard Stream Operators << and >> 753

15.3.1 Output Operator << 753

15.3.2 Input Operator >> 754

15.3.3 Input/Output of Special Types 755

15.4 StateofStreams 758

15.4.1 Constants for theStateofStreams 758

15.4.2 Member Functions Accessing the State of Streams 759

15.4.3 Stream State and Boolean Conditions 760

15.4.4 Stream State and Exceptions 762

15.5 Standard Input/Output Functions 767

15.5.1 Member Functions for Input 768

15.5.2 Member Functions for Output 771

15.5.3 ExampleUses 772

15.5.4 sentryObjects 772

15.6 Manipulators 774

15.6.1 Overview of All Manipulators 774

15.6.2 How Manipulators Work 776

15.6.3 User-Defined Manipulators 777

15.7 Formatting 779

15.7.1 FormatFlags 779

15.7.2 Input/Output Format of Boolean Values 781

15.7.3 Field Width, Fill Character, and Adjustment 781

15.7.4 PositiveSignandUppercaseLetters 784

15.7.5 NumericBase 785

15.7.6 Floating-Point Notation 787

15.7.7 General Formatting Definitions 789

15.8 Internationalization 790

15.9 File Access 791

15.9.1 FileStreamClasses 791

15.9.2 Rvalue and Move Semantics for File Streams 795

15.9.3 FileFlags 796

15.9.4 Random Access 799

15.9.5 Using File Descriptors 801

15.10 Stream Classes for Strings 802

15.10.1 StringStreamClasses 802

15.10.2 Move Semantics for String Streams 806

15.10.3 char*StreamClasses 807

15.11 Input/Output Operators for User-Defined Types 810

15.11.1 Implementing Output Operators 810

15.11.2 Implementing Input Operators 812

15.11.3 Input/Output Using Auxiliary Functions 814

15.11.4 User-DefinedFormatFlags 815

15.11.5 Conventions for User-Defined Input/Output Operators 818

15.12 Connecting Input and Output Streams 819

15.12.1 Loose Coupling Using tie() 819

15.12.2 Tight Coupling Using Stream Buffers 820

15.12.3 Redirecting Standard Streams 822

15.12.4 Streams for Reading and Writing 824

15.13 TheStreamBufferClasses 826

15.13.1 The Stream Buffer Interfaces 826

15.13.2 StreamBuffer Iterators 828

15.13.3 User-DefinedStreamBuffers 832

15.14 Performance Issues 844

15.14.1 Synchronization with C’s Standard Streams 845

15.14.2 BufferinginStreamBuffers 845

15.14.3 UsingStreamBuffersDirectly 846

16 Internationalization 849

16.1 Character Encodings and Character Sets 850

16.1.1 Multibyte and Wide-Character Text 850

16.1.2 DifferentCharacterSets 851

16.1.3 Dealing with Character Sets in C++ 852

16.1.4 CharacterTraits 853

16.1.5 Internationalization of Special Characters 857

16.2 TheConceptofLocales 857

16.2.1 UsingLocales 858

16.2.2 Locale Facets 864

16.3 Locales inDetail 866

16.4 Facets in Detail 869

16.4.1 Numeric Formatting 870

16.4.2 Monetary Formatting 874

16.4.3 Time and Date Formatting 884

16.4.4 Character Classification and Conversion 891

16.4.5 String Collation 904

16.4.6 Internationalized Messages 905

17 Numerics 907

17.1 Random Numbers and Distributions 907

17.1.1 AFirstExample 908

17.1.2 Engines 912

17.1.3 Engines in Detail 915

17.1.4 Distributions 917

17.1.5 Distributions in Detail 921

17.2 ComplexNumbers 925

17.2.1 Class complex<> inGeneral 925

17.2.2 Examples Using Class complex<> 926

17.2.3 Operations for Complex Numbers 928

17.2.4 Class complex<> inDetail 935

17.3 Global Numeric Functions 941

17.4 Valarrays 943

18 Concurrency 945

18.1 The High-Level Interface: async() and Futures 946

18.1.1 A First Example Using async() and Futures 946

18.1.2 An Example of Waiting for Two Tasks 955

18.1.3 Shared Futures 960

18.2 The Low-Level Interface: Threads and Promises 964

18.2.1 Class std::thread 964

18.2.2 Promises 969

18.2.3 Class packaged_task<> 972

18.3 Starting a Thread in Detail 973

18.3.1 async() inDetail 974

18.3.2 Futures in Detail 975

18.3.3 Shared Futures in Detail 976

18.3.4 Class std::promise inDetail 977

18.3.5 Class std::packaged_task inDetail 977

18.3.6 Class std::thread inDetail 979

18.3.7 Namespace this_thread 981

18.4 Synchronizing Threads, or the Problem of Concurrency 982

18.4.1 BewareofConcurrency! 982

18.4.2 The Reason for the Problem of Concurrent Data Access 983

18.4.3 What Exactly Can Go Wrong (the Extent of the Problem) 983

18.4.4 The Features to Solve the Problems 987

18.5 Mutexes andLocks 989

18.5.1 UsingMutexes andLocks 989

18.5.2 Mutexes andLocks inDetail 998

18.5.3 Calling Once for Multiple Threads 1000

18.6 Condition Variables 1003

18.6.1 Purpose of Condition Variables 1003

18.6.2 A First Complete Example for Condition Variables 1004

18.6.3 Using Condition Variables to Implement a Queue for Multiple Threads 1006

18.6.4 Condition Variables in Detail 1009

18.7 Atomics 1012

18.7.1 ExampleofUsingAtomics 1012

18.7.2 Atomics and Their High-Level Interface in Detail 1016

18.7.3 The C-Style Interface of Atomics 1019

18.7.4 TheLow-Level InterfaceofAtomics 1019

19 Allocators 1023

19.1 Using Allocators as an Application Programmer 1023

19.2 AUser-DefinedAllocator 1024

19.3 UsingAllocators as aLibraryProgrammer 1026

Bibliography 1031

 Newsgroups and Forums 1031

 Books and Web Sites 1032

Index 1037

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